The most famous coach of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas Runnin' Rebels basketball team, Jerry Tarkanian, was accused of both recruitment fraud and gambling fraud over the course of his career and was the subject of intense NCAA scrutiny.
Another form of this involves a team coach or other manager undertaking corporate espionage or another form of prohibited spying in order to obtain details about other teams' strategies and tactics.
Another common form of cheating in coaching is profiteering in association with gamblers and match fixing (see also the section below on cheating in the gambling industry).
However, there was cheating proven by the Denver Broncos during their back to back titles in the late 90's to circumvent the league's salary cap and obtain and retain players that they would otherwise not have been able to.
Circumvention of rules governing conduct and procedures of a sport can also be considered cheating.
One of the most famous instances of cheating involving a prohibited player action occurred during the 1986 FIFA World Cup quarter-final, when Diego Maradona used his hand to punch the ball into the goal of England goalkeeper Peter Shilton.
Using the hand or arm by anyone other than a goalkeeper is illegal according to the rules of association football.